What Do Researchers Use Animal and Human Cell Cultures for in Research?

Both human and animal cells are important for research but many people may not know the uses of these cell cultures. To get an idea of their specific functions in research, these are the potential uses and studies.

Human Cell Cultures

The reason why human cells are used for research and testing is that they are more useful than animal tests when it comes to understanding human diseases and biology. Cell cultures from humans can be used to screen cancer treatments, test drugs, and even grow specific cells. The primary advantage of human cell cultures is that it allows researchers to simply a system or disease and focus on a small number of variables.

One example of human cell cultures and their use is studying cancer. Researchers can harvest cells from living or deceased donors who have developed cancer and see how those specific cancer cells grow, how the cells react to certain treatments, fuel sources for cells, and many other uses. Human cells are used to understand physiology and disease as well as a controlled early way to study treatments for specific diseases and conditions on a cellular level.

Animal Cell Cultures

Since animals share a significant amount of genetic material with humans, they can also be valuable for research. The use of animals in research is designed to help diagnose and treat diseases that affect both animals and humans. Chimpanzees, for example, share 99% of NDA with humans and mice also share a significant amount. Mice have a short life span so researchers can use harvest cells from several generations of mice to determine how genetic diseases change. Additionally, researchers can easily control the environment around animals which is more difficult to do with humans.

One example of research using animal cell cultures is studying HIV/AIDS. Researchers are still learning how HIV functions by studying its related disease in monkeys. The animal version of the disease is Simian Immunodeficiency Virus although chimpanzees can carry the disease without it being fatal. Researchers will culture cells from the animals, compare it to the HIV that affects humans and use to gain a greater understanding of the disease with a focus on potential treatments.

These are just a few examples of the numerous uses that cell cultures play in research. Both human and animal cell cultures are amazingly valuable for studies and provide a way to understand and treat conditions in a minimally invasive but extremely effective method.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Research Performed Using Human Biologicals

Healthcare research can be categorized into three main types: research on humans, research on human biological materials and lastly research on personal data. Human biologicals are defined as plasma, IgG protein, serum, whole blood, organs, part of organs, cells, tissues and even components of such material from living and/or dead persons. This means that any physical material from the human body may it be a fluid, protein or even whole blood are considered human biological materials in a sense. Human Materials such as plasma, human fluids, and whole blood are some of collection of human material that can be used in research.

The use of human biological material has raised ethical questions of recent. Some might think that since some of these materials are no longer part of a body like deficient plasma, thus do not present any problem. That is not usually the case. Ethical issues arise because these are human materials implying a connection with someone. Some might claim ownership of “their” material and thus have the right to decide for them. Others have interests in safeguarding human materials. These principal issues relate to the possibility of identifying the individuals.

With the help of modern biotechnological methods, it is possible to trace back to the individuals provided that the individualizing characteristics are not removed from the human material. This, however, can create problems for the individuals. For example, if blood tests conducted show a genetic disposition to a particular disease and such information is not handled properly by rules on confidentiality thus violating privacy of the individual donor.

A research biobank is a collection of the human biologicals that are used in a research project or that will be used by researchers in future research projects. They are provided for medical tests, diagnostics, and treatment. The collection, storage, and processing of these human materials in the biobank should be carried in an ethically responsible manner. Privacy is given priority with regards to principles of human dignity and human right.

The use of human biologicals is crucial for health-related purposes such as diagnostics, treatment, and even teaching purpose. Therefore, it is important the use of these materials should be done in a responsible, ethical manner. The use of these human biological should be in accordance to rules and laws such as the Health Research Act and the Treatment BioBank Act. The use of human biologicals in medical and healthcare research should respect human rights and human dignity and should never discriminate the person from whom the biological materials originate.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Animal Biologicals Collection for Research Purposes

Whole blood, serum, plasma, red blood cells, hormones, body fluids, IgG proteins, glands, organs, and tissues form part of animal biologics that are used for research purposes. They are collected in order to make sure that they are free from any kind of contamination. The factors that determine whether the collected animal biologicals are of high quality are the animal source, the process of collection and their storage.

The animals that are free from antibiotics and parasites are used for collecting biologicals. It is ensured that the water and food given to these animals are certified and free from any kind of contamination. The mere absence of diseases is not enough; the animals must be healthy in all respects. Biologicals are never sourced from diseased or sick animals. Further, only antibiotics certified by a veterinarian are administered to the animals. In addition, biologicals are collected only after 21 days following the administration of antibiotics. This is because antibiotic contamination tends to skew results and limit the use of the biologicals. Parasitic contamination, on the other hand, affects the tissue samples’ integrity.

The biologicals are collected when the animal is not experiencing any kind of stress. This is because stress impacts the sample quality. For certain specific studies related to endocrine disease, cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer’s, biologicals are collected from genetically modified or pregnant animals. It is ensured that the samples are collected causing least pain to the animal.

Research regulations stipulate that aseptic conditions are to be maintained during the process of collection of samples. They include the restraint of animals, collection site disinfection, and use of proper equipment. The collection site is shaved and then disinfected using 70 percent alcohol prior to and after blood sample collection. Disposable syringes are made use of and the used ones are appropriately disposed of immediately. Biologicals may be collected from abattoirs prior to slaughter or from donor animals in farms.

It is better to use a vacutainer for the collection of blood samples. Anticoagulants are not used when collecting serum for serological analysis. For whole blood sample collection, only specified anti-coagulants (Sodium Heparin, Sodium EDTA, Alsevers Solution, or Sodium Citrate) are used. The properties of different anticoagulants are different and are, therefore, used depending on the laboratory procedures to be carried out.

Tissue harvest is started soon after euthanasia. This is to ensure that there is no bacterial contamination because of intestinal seepage. Organs are observed at the site itself prior to collection of tissue samples. Tissues are preserved using 10 percent buffered formalin. Alternatively, tissues are refrigerated at 40 degrees Celsius for short periods or frozen at -100 degrees Celsius for longer periods.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Research Performed Using Animal Serum

Serum is the fluid segment of the blood that is not clotted containing the red and white cells and platelets. It’s the coagulation that makes the difference between serum and plasma.

Animal serum are regularly utilized as a part of cell culture research, serum provide proteins, nutrients, attachment factors, trace element, growth factors, and hormones which helps in the development of the cells. In spite of the fact that FBS (fetal bovine serum) is the most regularly utilized serum, numerous serums are also accessible. Serum has been in use for quite a long time in cell culture since it gives a close representative of what cells would obtain in the body. The major component of serum for health and growth include albumin, transferring, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and different other nutritive and protective factors.

Cell culture is a strategy by which cell behavior can be studied independent of the whole organism. In biological research cells are taken from a plant or animal and grown under controlled conditions. The process of cell culture involves removing a cell from a plant or animal and their subsequent growth in a serum. The cell might be removed from the tissue directly and disaggregated by an enzyme or mechanical means before development in a serum.

Cell culture can be comprehensively classified into three distinct categories: Primary cell culture which includes the extraction of cells from the tissue and processed to establish under culture conditions in a serum. Secondary cell culture which result from the Sub-culture of primary cells while cell line is produced from a solitary cell and has a uniform generic composition. The cell line can be either finite or continuous cell line.

Cell culture has been used as a major tool in biological research by giving excellent model system for studying the biochemistry and physiology of cells, the impacts of drugs and toxic compounds on the cells and so on. It is also used in drug screening and the development of biological compounds on a large scale. Other uses of animal serum for cell culture include the following:

Cancer Research: cells can be exposed to radiation, chemicals and viruses to make them cancerous. However, the mechanism and cause for cancer and the altered pathways can be studied with the aid of animal serum. It can likewise be used for determination of effective drugs for cancerous cells. The side effect of cancer treatments (chemotherapy and irradiation) on normal cells can be studied in this context as well.

Virology: Isolation, growth and development cycles and the detection of viruses can be studied. Cells cultures are also essential when studying the mode of infection.

Toxicity Testing and drug screening: Cell cultures are used in the study of cytotoxicity of new drugs (to study the effect and safe dosage) as well as drug carriers (nanoparticles). It is helpful for the synthesis or production of different biomolecules at an industrial scale. This is especially helpful in the pharmaceutical industry. Different research projects on cell-based therapeutic products, using cell culture are being developed. Animal cell culture is used in place of animal models to test the effects of new drugs, cosmetics and chemicals. They are also used to determine the permissible dosage of new drugs.

Vaccine Production: In the production of viruses, cell cultures are mainly used, the viruses are then used to produce vaccines for diseases such as (polio, rabies, chicken pox, measles and hepatitis).

Genetic Engineering Proteins: Genetically important proteins such as monoclonal antibodies, hormones, insulin and many more are produced commercially with the aid of cell culture.

Prenatal diagnosis: Amniotic fluid from pregnant women is extracted and the cells are cultured for the study of chromosomes abnormalities, genes using karyotyping, and used in the early detection of fetal disorders.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Standards of Human and Animal Biologicals

When carrying out research about humans and animals, you will discover that they both operate within procedures and established standards. However, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research reports that the human research environment can be inefficient, operate with an imperfect process and even abuse some of their human subjects during research. No similar, principled and comprehensive effort has addressed the use of animals in research.

Because of this, almost every researcher holds on to an ethical code of conduct for performing their hunt for the results. There are a few ethical considerations to be followed for successful completion of experimental analysis on lab suppliers and human and animal biological materials.

  1. Confidentiality

The researcher should preserve the data gathered from the study subjects. The report should not contain any personal details about the subjects, and the researcher should not communicate with others regarding the personal subject information. Unless there are some sorts of permission for sharing the information, you should not share the data.

  1. Commitments

Since the sponsoring company will provide financial support for developing the analysis, they will be committed to the users, society, study subjects and professionals. Hence, the researcher must not reject any data which may lead to adverse conclusions and because of that interpretations will go wrong for the sponsoring company.

  1. Recording must be monitored

Use of hidden cameras, microphones, tape-recorders or observers during the research without the subjects’ permission is strictly prohibited. In the same way, the researcher must not have any personal communication with the subjects, except in the situations of animal research.

  1. The study subjects must be aware of all the procedures

The researcher must explain the experimental procedures and the risk involved thoroughly to the volunteer. It is also necessary to inform the subjects about the need for the research. If the research requires the use of children or animals, the researcher must get the informed consent from parents or the correct animal organization.

  1. Giving credits

The researcher must also give credits for those who have helped with tool construction, data collection, data analysis or preparation of the research report.

Thus, make sure that you follow ethics of research while doing your research on lab suppliers and human and animal biological materials.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Tips on Buying Human Biologicals

Tips on Buying Human Biologicals

Buying human biologicals for research purposes as well as having patent right to them has been accompanied by lots of ethical questions for as long as they have been used..

Human biological fluid research materials are also accompanied by another issue, who is the rightful owner of a particular human biological material?  Issues like this make it necessary for buyers to have information on when purchasing so that they do not fall prey to inadequate information that compromises valuable research.

What do we mean when we are discussing human biological research materials?  In section four of the Health Research Act it defines human biologics as parts of organs, cells, tissues or other components of any material sourced from a human being whether they are alive or dead.

Tip #1 – Understand the property rights that are common to the human biological you wish to purchase.

To know the right of ownership of any human biological materials (such as the human biological fluid research material) is essential because it will evade you from unnecessary legal injunctions.  This is particularly important when using materials in research.  The last thing that is needed when doing research is complications on the research materials that are used.

A standard reference to such issues is seen in the case of Doctor Fremont and Simon. Doctor Fremont applied for a patent right to Fremont’s DNA and got approved but there was no legal precision on ownership of the molecular pathology materials. For more information and details on this case take a look into “the taking of human biologicals”.

The point is this: before you apply for a patent or buy any human biological you should have adequate knowledge about the property right of such human biologicals. Just a hint here! For human biologicals such as human biological fluids materials, the legal position on it is that patents do not cover it when they are still in the human body, but when they are outside the human body, the patent holder can exercise an exclusive right to such materials.

Tip #1 – Understand the requirements of the particular human biological fluid research materials you want to purchase.

Human biological fluid research materials such as blood, serum and plasma have standard requirements for the buyer.  First, the blood will need to be stored in a refrigerator.  This is a standard requirement for you as a buyer.  Blood storage refrigeration is unlike traditional domestic refrigeration equipment.  The following refers to some specifications that are unique to a blood storage refrigerator.

  • Must have an all round heavier insulation, which enables it to hold the required temperature in any case of power failure. With such insulin, it should be able to maintain temperatures between +20 and +60
  • A blood storage refrigerator should have a cooling fan that enables it to distribute air in the cabinet evenly.
  • It should have a good temperature monitoring device, which should comprise of an external temperature display and an alarm system for abnormal temperature or in the event of power failure.

In our next installment on buying human biological we will continue to look more in depth at the requirements of the particular human biological fluid research materials.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Best Methods of Collecting Animal Biological Products for Research

Animal biologicals include whole blood, plasma, serum, hormones, body fluid, glands, and tissues. The objective of collecting the biologicals is to ensure that they are free of every form of contamination. The principles that determine the collection of high-quality animal biologicals are determined by the animal source, the collection process and the storage of the products.

The animals in question should be antibiotic and anti-parasitic-free. The feed and water given to the animals must be certified to be free of any form of contamination. The animals should be healthy in every ramification, without merely the absence of disease. Sick or diseased animals should not be used as sources of biologicals. Any antibiotics to be administered to any animal should be certified by a veterinarian and must be given at least 21 days before the biologicals are collected. Antibiotic contamination limits the use of the biologicals and skews results. Parasitic contamination affects the integrity of tissue samples.

The samples should be collected when the animals are least stressful, as stress affects the quality of the samples. Sometimes, the biologicals have to be collected from genetically modified and pregnant animals for specific studies of such diseases as endocrine disease, diabetes, cancer and Alzheimer’s. The samples should be collected in the least painful manner. The conditions for the collection process must be aseptic in line with regulations for research. These regulations guide the restraint of the animals, the disinfection of the collection site, and the use of proper equipment. Collection sites should be shaved, and disinfected with 70% alcohol before and after the collection of blood.  New syringes should be used for each animal, and used syringes should be disposed immediately and appropriately. Biological products may be collected at abattoirs pre-slaughter or from donor animals on farms.

Blood is collected though a vacutainer and then transferred into vials, bottles or bags. It is more preferable to use a vacutainer instead of a syringe. To collect sera for serological analysis, no anti-coagulants are used. The blood sample should be made to stand at ambient temperatures for 1-2 hours. If the collection of whole blood is the goal, then the collecting receptacle would contain one of the following anti-coagulants: Sodium Heparin, Alsevers Solution, Sodium EDTA, or Sodium Citrate. The different anticoagulants have different properties and are suitable for different laboratory procedures. Whole blood samples should be transported to the laboratory at 40C and not frozen.

Blood collection without fluid replacement is restricted to 10% of the total blood volume on a single occasion. Where blood collection would be regularly repeated, a canula may be used to reduce stress. At least 2.5ml and at most 10ml of blood should be collected per animal for an analysis.

Tissue harvest should be started immediately after euthanasia to prevent bacterial contamination through intestinal seepage. Organs should be observed in situ before tissue samples are removed. Tissues may be immediately fixed to prevent decay, autolysis and putrefaction, and thus preserve cells for examination. 10% buffered formalin is best for fixing tissues. The downside to preserving tissue with formalin is that it ruins the examination of the tissue for certain tests, such as microbial examination.  Alternatively, tissue may be refrigerated at 40C for short periods or frozen at -100C for longer periods.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Uѕіng Biological Products fоr Rеѕеаrсh

Our ѕосіеtу is on thе brіnk оf dеvеlорmеnt and advancement where the word ‘advanced’ is thе tag for еvеrу ѕрhеrе оr field. There are various соntrіbutоrу factors fоr thіѕ аnd bіоlоgісаl рrоduсt іѕ one such fасtоr thаt demonstrates thе very аdvаnсеd ѕtаgе of our dеvеlорmеnt, аnd раrtісulаrlу, іn thе field оf science. Thеѕе рrоduсtѕ are used іn аlmоѕt all іmроrtаnt ѕесtоrѕ lіkе рhаrmасеutісаl іnduѕtrу, fооd іnduѕtrу, аgrісulturе, аnd оthеrѕ which аrе bесоmіng mоrе оr less a dаіlу nесеѕѕіtу.

Bіоlоgісаl рrоduсtѕ are thоѕе ѕubѕtаnсеѕ, obtained frоm lіvіng beings (humans, animals, plants, аnd mісrо-оrgаnіѕmѕ), whісh аrе uѕеd for prevention or fоr thе treatment of diseases. These рrоduсtѕ clone thе nаturаl аnd essential ѕubѕtаnсеѕ like hоrmоnеѕ, еnzуmеѕ, аnd antibodies in оur bоdу.

Examples оf biological рrоduсtѕ іnсludе:

  • vaccines
  • blood аnd blооd рrоduсtѕ fоr trаnѕfuѕіоn аnd/оr manufacturing іntо оthеr рrоduсtѕ
  • аllеrgеnіс еxtrасtѕ, whісh аrе uѕеd for bоth dіаgnоѕіѕ аnd treatment (fоr example, allergy shots)
  • humаn cells аnd tіѕѕuеѕ uѕеd fоr transplantation (fоr еxаmрlе, tеndоnѕ, lіgаmеntѕ, аnd bоnе)
  • gene thеrаріеѕ
  • сеllulаr thеrаріеѕ
  • tеѕtѕ to ѕсrееn роtеntіаl blооd dоnоrѕ fоr infectious аgеntѕ ѕuсh аѕ HIV

Thеу аrе аlѕо саllеd ‘biologics’. These products іnсludе vассіnеѕ, blood аnd іtѕ рrоduсtѕ, аnаlоgоuѕ рrоduсtѕ, hormone еxtrасtѕ, toxin, аntіtоxіn, humаn cells аnd tissues uѕеd for transplantation, additives, lаbоrаtоrу chemicals, etc. It ѕhоuld also be nоtеd thаt thеѕе рrоduсtѕ, which can bе соmроѕеd of рrоtеіnѕ, ѕugаrѕ, nuсlеіс acids, еtс., аlѕо includes, рерtоnе, protein hydrolysates, уеаѕt еxtrасt, mаlt extract, lіvеr and bіlе еxtrасtѕ.

Bіоlоgісѕ еxрrеѕѕеd the hіghlу advanced nature оf mеdісаl ѕсіеnсе and research. There are consistent аnd соntіnuіng rеѕеаrсh еffоrtѕ for dеvеlоріng mоrе оf thеѕе products whісh will multірlу tо existing medication орtіоnѕ аnd to іntrоduсе a nеw treatment for thоѕе unаvаіlаblе оnеѕ.

Bіоtесhnоlоgісаl рrоduсtѕ are рrоduсtѕ which аrе рrоduсеd through biotechnology and uѕеd іn vаrіоuѕ fіеldѕ ѕuсh аѕ pharmaceutical, agriculture industries, veterinary аnd animal feed, cosmetic, fооd and bеvеrаgеѕ, microbiology сulturе mеdіа аnd рlаnt tіѕѕuе сulturе media, etc.

Biotechnology іѕ thе аррlісаtіоn of bіоlоgісаl рrосеѕѕ. Using the bіоlоgісаl еxtrасtѕ, thе tесhnоlоgу рrоduсеѕ a wіdе rаngе оf products fоr ѕеrіеѕ of рurроѕеѕ like nеw trеаtmеnt fоr dіѕеаѕеѕ, dеvеlоріng a nеw and аdvаnсеd kіnd оf сrорѕ, mісrо-оrgаnіѕmѕ thаt соnѕumе hаrmful organic wastes аnd оthеrѕ.

Amоng оthеr important contributions mаdе bу thіѕ technology, іѕ іn the fіеld оf food аnd bеvеrаgе, which іѕ outstanding. It рrоduсеѕ fооd additives and fооd ingredients іn order to рrоvіdе thе requіrеmеntѕ fоr production оf fооd. Thеѕе additives аnd food іngrеdіеnt products help іn рrеѕеrvіng аnd keeping thе processed food in gооd соndіtіоn fоr a long period оf time from thе mаnufасturіng ѕtаgе tо thе ѕеllіng ѕtаgе. Alѕо, these food аddіtіvеѕ аrе uѕеd fоr vаrіоuѕ рurроѕеѕ lіkе flаvоrіng and ѕеаѕоnіng оf fооd, рrеѕеrvаtіvеѕ, nutrіtіоn, meat рrоduсtѕ, еtс. and in іnduѕtrіеѕ lіkе саndу аnd confectionery, bаkеrу, сеrеаlѕ and dаіrу industries, аnd other fооd рrосеѕѕіng industries.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.

Importance of Using High Quality Human Biological Materials in Research

There’s no denying the value that quality human biological materials can provide to research, but with the increasing number of samples collected and stored every day the need to ensure the samples retain their level of quality is of paramount importance.

Further to that, there is an ethical responsibility to ensure that samples get used in a way that is most advantageous to society. Quality control systems need to be put in place at all stages, including collection, processing, and storage.

A detailed series of records and procedures applied to the samples will provide the information researchers need to understand how samples will be affected by the collection and storage methods. This process will also aid in determining the quality of the samples. The quality system allows researchers to determine if the human biological samples, such as plasma, remain fit for purpose.

Knowing what the samples are going to be used for plays a big part in how they are stored and collected. For instance, samples destined for use in human treatment will require a higher standard than samples collected primarily for research purposes.

A collection and storage system should not just outline how a sample is collected but also how it is transported, and any and all processes applied to it to facilitate the transport.

A biobank of tissue resources, where researchers have a large sample base to conduct research from, can have massive benefits for society.  However, varying standards in regards to quality and the data collected between facilities can mean that samples get lost or forgotten.

To minimize the impact this can have on sample quality and availability an independent body needs to have some input into how tissue samples are processed and managed. Two standards developed by the National Cancer Research Institute’s (NCRI) and Confederation of Cancer Biobanks (CCB) go a long way to ensuring the high quality of samples. They also use a high level of transparency in regards to their collection, storage, and use to increase public confidence.

Learn more about Innovative Research and our high quality research materials including human, plant, and animal biological, ELISA & Assay Kits, proteins, antibodies, cell cultures, blood, serum, plasma, and more.  More information can be found at https://www.innov-research.com/ or by calling 248.896.0145.