Igniting Fires in Snowy Areas

If you ever find yourself stranded outside in the winter, chances are, you’ll be surrounded by snow and susceptible to the darkness that forces temperatures to plummet below freezing. Is building a fire out of the question? Answer: it can be difficult, but not impossible. 

Since snow immediately melts and turns into water when heated, flames can be extinguished quickly. Also, heat – not flame – causes fuel to burn. Since cold temperatures make heat production more difficult, increasing the fuel temperature can take a while. 

The most important thing to consider when building a fire in the snow is to find the proper site. When searching for the right area to start a fire, ensure it is protected from snow accumulation, wind, and water. Clear snow from the ground before beginning. 

Next, construct a fire pit by adding a stone floor to raise the fuel above ground. Align the stones against each other and use a heat reflector to keep the warm air circulating. Trees, cliff walls, or the silver side of heat blankets are all great reflectors. Don’t forget to create a raised space for firewood, which will help keep it dry and away from the snow. 

Use kindling and fuel to start the fire, preferably with large dry, or dead pieces such as tree trunks or stumps. Locate wood you can use as the fire burns to ensure you have enough when you need it. You can try a fire accelerant to speed up the process. If you carry a bug-out bag, pack tinder in your gear to help start fires. Dryer lint is an excellent accelerant.

Once your fire is roaring, build your shelter as close as possible – avoid placing flammable or meltable items near the fire – to keep yourself warm. Rocks placed in the fire can be used as mini heaters, warming your blanket or clothing if necessary. 

Keeping yourself warm in emergencies is incredibly important – even more so in freezing temperatures that can cause frostbite, hypothermia, and more. Ensure you are prepared for the worst, so you can hope for the best. 

Do you need a fire starter for emergencies? Look no further – Wolf Survival Gear carries a variety of fire starters to suit your needs. Rain or shine, hot or cold, we’ve got you covered. 

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you need it later. 

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/

Tips to Avoid Cold and Flu

With the winter season in full swing, it’s much easier for our immune systems to be weakened and our bodies to become susceptible to bacteria and viruses. While we congregate inside to keep warm, cold and flu illnesses are more easily transferrable. Read on to discover some tips to avoid getting sick this season.

Diet: Ensure your diet is full of vitamins and minerals to boost your immune system. Cruciferous vegetables, such as cauliflower, cabbage, kale, etc., are helpful, as are green vegetables. Use all colors of the rainbow when preparing meals.

Zinc: Take a zinc supplement within 24 hours of feeling mildly ill or “off” to reduce the chances of getting full-blown sickness. Research finds that by taking zinc sublingual (under the tongue), the body quickly absorbs the nutrient, which can help prevent respiratory tract infections and reduce the severity of symptoms. 

Vitamin D: This vitamin is especially crucial during the cold, dreary winter months, as we absorb much of our Vitamin D from sunshine in other months. Vitamin D foods include egg yolks, mushrooms, salmon, tuna, beef liver, or supplements.

Hydrate: Every tissue and organ within the human body relies on water to carry minerals and nutrients throughout each cell. Water also keeps your nose and throat moist, which helps trap bacteria before it infiltrates your immune system. Health experts commonly recommend drinking at least eight glasses of water every day. Include green tea in your regime; it has a high level of antioxidants and several health benefits. Also, avoid alcohol and stick to sugar-free, caffeine-free beverages as much as possible.

Moisturize:  Healthy mucous membranes are naturally moist and hydrated and act as a barrier to pathogens. When cold, wintry air dries out the membranes in our nasal passages, it creates cracks or breaks within the lining and allows viruses to invade our bodies more easily. Moisturize dry air using a humidifier and rehydrate the nasal passages with nasal saline drops.

Exercise: A regular routine such as walking, stretching, or jogging helps to minimize inflammation, reduce stress, increase circulation, and distribute white blood cells, which fight diseases. Every day, keep your body moving but don’t overdo it with extreme exercise, which can elevate stress hormones and increase your risk for infection. Respect your body’s limits and build in recovery days if you’re training for endurance.

Sleep: Healthy people generally sleep a minimum of eight hours nightly and are less susceptible to viruses and bacteria due to the body’s release of cytokines during that time. Cytokines are proteins that help fight infection by regulating the immune system.

Calm Down: Doctors suspect that there is a connection between chronic mental stress and physical illness. Practice yoga, meditate, or find another way to alleviate personal stress. The continuous release of cortisol, the stress hormone produced by your adrenal glands, will lose its effectiveness in fighting inflammation and disease and lower your immune system.

Hygiene: One of the easiest ways to avoid germs is to create environments they cannot survive in. Ensure you wash your hands before eating or preparing food or any contact with your eyes or mouth. Cover your mouth while sneezing, carry hand sanitizer, and disinfect shared surfaces like phones, doorknobs, remote controls, keyboards, etc.

Keep it Personal: According to the National Health Service, flu viruses can survive on surfaces for 24 hours. Try to remain mindful of this by frequently wiping down counters and door knobs when an illness is running through your household. Also, avoid sharing germs, use your own toothbrush, utensils, and glassware, and wash contaminated towels, toys, etc., in hot soapy water.

Staying healthy can be tricky, but using some common sense and some not-so-common advice will help. Stand back a bit from others, giving yourself some space from others who may cough or sneeze droplets into the air. Take a multivitamin and visit a primary care doctor regularly for check-ups. Remember, don’t go overboard by being a clean freak; germs help train the immune system and can help build up a healthy immune response. Also, remember to look on the bright side of things. Having a positive outlook will help ward off illness.  

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you need it later. 

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/ 

Gauging Ice Thickness

Whether you want to fish, skate, snowmobile, or drive a truck on it, ice can be dangerous if too thin for the activity you pursue. But how do you know if and when it’s thick enough to hold substantial weight? 

All ice that contains cracks or is located near inlets or moving water should be avoided. If there is any question about whether the ice is thick enough, chances are, it’s not. Use extreme caution when driving on ice with heavy vehicles, as it should be at least eight inches thick to hold a small pickup truck. 

Any cars parked on ice should be located at least 50 feet apart and moved every couple of hours. Use caution while driving slowly; ensure the doors are unlocked, and your seatbelt is off. 

Always make sure you – and your group – are equipped with a life jacket, ice pick, cell phone, a long rope, and an ice auger. 

Ice color is a huge giveaway when determining safety. Here are some guidelines: 

  • Clear ice is the strongest, as it’s also the newest
  • White or opaque ice is loaded with air pockets, making it weaker
  • Light gray to dark black ice is unsafe and should be avoided
  • Mottled, slushy, or “rotten” ice that is thawing or melting will immediately give way to weight

Once the ice is observed to be safe using the suggestions noted above, the ice thickness needs to be determined as well. To test ice thickness, use a drill to make a small hole, hook a tape measure to the bottom edge, and read the measurement. Ice color, thickness, external temperature, local conditions, and knowledge of frozen waterways are all important factors to consider when gauging ice thickness. 

The buddy system is also imperative for ice activities. Ensure someone knows where you are at all times. Make sure a flotation device is always within arm’s reach, especially while testing ice thickness. 

Ice augers can come in handy to drill through the ice; axes are also helpful in measuring thickness accurately.

Generally, ice for skating, walking, cross-country skiing, or fishing should be thicker than four inches and can support roughly 200 pounds. 

Ice for snowmobiles or ATVs should be five inches and can hold 800 pounds.

Eight to 12 inches of ice can support a small car or a larger group of people, while light pickup trucks or SUVs can clear ice 12 – 15 inches thick.

Have fun out there but be safe and use common sense. Check out Wolf Survival Gear for outerwear that will keep you warm.  

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you need it later. 

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/

Essential Tips for Subsistence Hunting

Survival hunting, also known as subsistence hunting, is, simply put, hunting to live. Though it is dwindling as a lifestyle, subsistence hunting is an essential skill for survival. Animal fats and proteins must be eaten regularly in extreme conditions to avoid energy draining during inclement weather or increased metabolism. 

The most abundant and easily huntable wild animals in the wilderness include small game, fish, reptiles, and the like. While all mammals and birds can be eaten, they should be cooked thoroughly to kill any microorganisms in the meat. It’s also important to eat – not avoid – fat; otherwise, your body cannot process the protein. A tasty source of fat is skin and fatty internal organs such as the liver or brain. 

To trap small animals, it’s imperative to understand their daily and seasonal movements, diet, and size. Traps are only helpful if you know their habits, and snares can scare them away if not used with precision. 

Fish are a fantastic option for subsistence hunting since they can be harvested in many ways and prepared in various methods. Traps, spears, nets, bows, and primitive rods can catch fish. Some options are more passive than others, allowing you to do other activities while the fish are caught. 

Reptiles and amphibians need to be skinned before being eaten since many amphibians have toxins in their outer layer. Harvesting can be accomplished with a spear, bow, hook and feather, or smashed. Reptiles and amphibians are most active at night.

Invertebrates such as insects, crustaceans, and mollusks are also food options, though they don’t always come to the top of mind when we think about food options. High in protein, many can be gathered in nets or scooped off the ground by hand. Worms and grubs can be found under rotten wood. Crayfish can be easily trapped or pulled out from under rocks. All should be thoroughly cooked, as they can transmit deadly parasites and diseases. 

Wild meat is abundant outdoors and can be a delicious and sustainable fuel source. In survival situations, small mammals, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates are an excellent way to gain subsistence.

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you need it later. 

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/ 

Emergency Food Market Expected to Gain Revenue

According to a report released by Technavio, ready-to-eat meals (specifically focused on emergencies) are expected to grow by $2.88 billion from 2021 to 2026 at a rate of 7.23 percent. 

The report segments the emergency food market by product type, distribution channel, and geography. Some product types include ready-to-eat meals, non-perishable pasteurized milk, infant food, dried food, and more. How these product types perform will be explored worldwide, both online and offline. 

The largest contributor to the skyrocketing marketing growth is the ready-to-eat sector, powered by pre-cooked, pre-cleaned, and packaged food for consumers. The increasing number of working women, the growing Millennial community, quick consumption habits, and hectic work schedules all contribute to the expanding segment.

Maximum growth will be especially seen throughout Northern America, which is anticipated to contribute up to 31 percent of the global market growth, thanks to the United States. 

Vendors are strategically analyzing the difference between organic and inorganic strategies, as the market is fragmented. 

The emergency food market is experiencing stagnation as a result of the growth of the organized retail sector. As consumers can effortlessly choose from a wide range of ready-to-eat products, an increase in the number of retailers is predicted to raise market growth during the forecast period. 

Though the emergency food market is expected to grow significantly, there is at least one challenge: the requirement to adhere to strict guidelines and regulations. Several food safety organizations throughout the world, such as the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), set regulations that can be laborious for the emergency food market. Overcoming these hurdles and abiding by the law is essential, as consumers are swiftly made aware of incompliance or deviation. 

These factors and more will affect the growth of the ready-to-eat market during the forecast period. 

Are you looking for emergency food for you and your family? Check out our wide selection of delicious freeze-dried and ready-to-eat meals today. 

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you need it later. 

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/ 

Winter Weather Outlook

For the third year in a row, La Niña will return to the United States, driving warmer temperatures in the Southwest, the Gulf Coast, and the entire Eastern Seaboard, according to the Climate Prediction Center, a division of the National Weather Service. Beginning in December 2022 and continuing until roughly February 2023, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has predicted dry conditions along the South and wet weather for the Ohio Valley, Great Lakes, Northern Rockies, and the Pacific Northwest. 

Michael Farrar, Ph.D., director of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction said, “The hardworking forecasters at NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center produce timely and accurate seasonal outlooks and short-term forecasts year-round. NOAA’s new supercomputers are enabling us to develop even better, more detailed forecast capabilities, which we will be rolling out in the coming years.” 

In collaboration with the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS), NOAA forecasters constantly observe the drought conditions that have plagued the Western United States since late 2020. They also track the Central United States as low-water conditions are afflicting the area. 

“Drought conditions are now present across approximately 59 percent of the country, but parts of the Western U.S. and Southern Great Plains will continue to be the hardest hit this winter. With the La Niña climate pattern still in place, drought conditions may also expand to the Gulf Coast,” said Jon Gottschalck, chief of the Operational Prediction Branch in NOAA’s Climate Prediction Center. 

The greatest warmer-than-average weather will occur in Western Alaska, the Central Great Basin, the Southwest, the Southeast, the Atlantic Coast, and the Southern Plains. Below-normal temperatures will stretch from the Pacific Northwest eastward to the Western Great Lakes and the Alaskan Panhandle. 

In terms of precipitation, Western Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, the Northern Rockies, the Great Lakes, and the Ohio Valley should brace themselves for wetter-than-average conditions. Parts of California, the Southwest, Southern Rockies, Southern Plains, the Golf Coast, and the Southeast will see drier-than-average precipitation.

Widespread drought will affect the West, Great Basin, central-to-southern Great Plains, the middle and lower Mississippi Valley, South-central, and the Southeastern United States. Moreover, the already-established drought conditions are expected to improve across the Northwestern United States in the coming months. 

Do you have all the cold-weather gear you need for winter? Are you prepared? Check out our supplies, available online and get what you need today…before you’ll need it tomorrow. 

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you’ll need it later. 

Wilderness First Aid

Ready for your next outdoor adventure? Don’t forget to account for first aid. Most outdoor incidents are minor and easily remedied, though many conditions can worsen quickly. Ensure you and your fellow explorers are prepared for any situation with help from our trusty first-aid crash course.

Evaluate

  1. Analyze the scene
  2. Locate threats
  3. Complete exam (vital signs, head-to-toe check, etc.)
  4. Identify the Mechanism of Injury (MOI)
  5. Create an incident list and treatment plan
  6. Support patient(s) both medically and emotionally
  7. Monitor progress
  8. Protect yourself

Once you have analyzed the situation and determined treatment is necessary, start by asking the patient if you can help. If they respond with “yes,” ask their name, symptoms, and to describe what happened. This will help you establish their cognizance and formulate a treatment plan. 

Next, begin the life threat exam by completing the “ABCDE” exam: 

Airway check: Look for obstructions in the mouth
Breathing check: Follow the chest’s movements to listen and feel for proper respiration
Circulation check: Monitor their pulse and look for bleeding wounds
Disability check: Protect the spine if you cannot rule out a spinal injury
Expose injuries: Open clothing over serious injuries without moving the patient

If a major wound is present, stabilize and treat that area first. All life-threatening injuries should be dealt with during the “ABCDE” exam. 

After you have gathered all the information you can, make a treatment plan and decide whether an evacuation is necessary. Analyze whether you need to move out by helicopter, rescuers on foot, by yourselves, etc. These are complex decisions and should not be taken lightly. Life or death depends on many factors, especially when it comes to wilderness survival. 

Wilderness first aid classes can be extremely beneficial for patient assessment and to learn how to mitigate many medical conditions. These can be taken at any time and are highly recommended by wilderness experts.

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you’ll need it later. Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/

Big Game Hunter Survival Tips

Unexpected situations can creep up anywhere – especially while hunting in the fall season. Every year, countless hunters get lost or disoriented, resulting in dangerous conditions such as hypothermia or other health hazards. Most hunters make it out alive, but deep woods hazards should not be taken lightly. Prepare for the unexpected by reviewing our checklist below. 

Know The Area
It’s imperative to be extremely familiar with the landscape you are hunting in. Pay attention to your surroundings including rivers, creeks, and significant trees. If you are on a trail, leave temporary markers at intersections so you can easily find your way back. When reversed, the area can look different, especially in the dark. 

Extreme Weather
If it’s raining, foggy, snowing, or showing signs of poor visibility, the landscape will change in mere minutes. You can easily get lost or turned around in cold, wet weather, so make sure you have the proper gear and clothing to account for extreme weather changes. 

Map + Compass VS GPS + Cell Phones
There are obviously pros and cons to each of these, but the lesson here is not to rely solely on one or the other. While electronic devices can fail due to dead batteries or malfunction, maps and compasses can become wet and ruined or rendered illegible. Not to mention, you need to be trained on how to use them. 

Build a Fire
Carry matches, a lighter, or another fire-starting device that is weatherproof and capable of working in any condition. Never leave a fire unattended, but utilize the warmth if necessary. 

Communicate
Ensure your loved ones know where you are at all times, and set a deadline to alert the authorities if you haven’t returned. If you have a hunting partner, do the same for them.

Light the Path
Flashlights or headlamps are invaluable for hunters and can be handy for a variety of purposes.  

Food, Shelter, and Warmth
While a human can survive days without food, staying warm and hydrated is more critical. If you are out longer than anticipated, commercial survival kits can provide nourishment when you need it.

If you need gear to prepare for the hunt, check out our wide selection at Wolf Survival Gear today.

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you’ll need it later. Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/ 

Survival Fishing Techniques

As the proverb goes, “Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” Fishing has been a skill set used by humans for thousands of years. It’s one of the main sources of nutrition for survival; however, recently, it’s become more of a sport for outdoor enthusiasts.

Fish thrive in almost any body of water. They are packed with protein and are a great go-to, especially if caught in survival mode. For this reason, it’s important to learn how to catch a fish without the bells and whistles of modern-day equipment such as a rod, reel, and tackle. The concept of fishing is easy. Yet, understanding the basics of marine life and their habitat will help, along with having some knowledge of fishing techniques, and practicing patience. Read on to learn a few different methods for fishing without the fancy equipment.

Net Fishing

This style of active fishing allows a person to potentially collect multiple unaware fish in just a single scoop making this method very practical in any survival situation. A fishing net can be created using various materials, ranging from wood, cloth, thick grass/vines, and twine to scraps of your own tee-shirt tied to a couple of sticks. The net needs to be porous, allowing water to flow through, yet strong enough to hold fish. Once you have your net, stand in deep water, yet stay where you can still steadily stand within the current and drag the net along the bottom, working your way up to shore. As you approach shallow water, carefully lift your net to maintain your catch. Hopefully, you will have caught at least several small fish to be used either as bait for larger fish or for a small meal!

Trotlines

A trotline is a passive option to catch fish and doesn’t require a person’s complete and undivided attention. This type of fishing works best if set up over a stream or other running water. Take a sturdy rope or line, tie it to a tree branch, stretch it across a shallow section of water to the other side, and secure. This creates a control line where you’ll add additional lines with a hook and bait on the end every foot or two. This method allows you to leave and return to check on your trotline, and hopefully, you’ll find a fish or two to enjoy.

Live Traps

Using live traps has a couple of advantages over other types of fishing. First, it doesn’t require special equipment like hooks or a fishing line. Secondly, catching and keeping the alive fish means a fresher, tastier meal. A funnel trap is the most basic type of live trap that a person can use. These are created by using a plastic bottle or something similar in shape. Placed with the current, fish swim in the narrow tunnel and become trapped in the larger container. Poke holes to release pressure on the container, weigh it down using rocks, and add bait to entice the fish to enter. Alternatively, you can build a larger version of this live trap called a fish weir. Using natural barriers such as rocks and sticks assembled together, you can guide fish into small, closed-off areas where they cannot swim out due to the current and small opening in which they came through. 

Passive fishing techniques are best for long-term survival as most of your energy will be needed elsewhere. Also, planning is important; keep in mind that your catch is prey for others. Consider smoking or drying your fish to preserve it for long periods. Or keep a live fish well, like your fish weir trap, to retain them. No matter your situation, remaining calm, focused, and maintaining a positive mindset will aid in survival.  

Need supplies? Wolf Survival Gear has long-term food, outerwear, camping gear, and essential survival tools for the great outdoors. 

_____________________________

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you’ll need it later.

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/

Camping During the Fall Season: 7 Basic Tips

With the shifting weather patterns, camping during the fall season can be tricky. How you prepare for your outing can make the difference between a great trip and a disastrous one. Read on to learn some important tips for a spectacular excursion in the great outdoors.

Morning Joe

Morning coffee is not essential by any means, but it sure makes your trip more pleasant. A warm cup of joe is a must-have for most adults, especially while enjoying the cold fall brisk woods. To make coffee in the old days, cowboys poured some grounds into a pot with hot water. Better yet, dump some grounds into a filter, slowly pour hot water over it, and stir. Don’t forget to pack some cream and sugar!

Clothing

Fall is unpredictable, so preparing for hot or chilly weather is critical. Be sure to dress in layers so you can peel off a coat, etc., if it’s warm or stay bundled up if it’s cold. Attempt to wear clothing that wicks moisture away; it’s important to remain dry (even from sweat) to stay warm. Have a change of clothing in case something gets wet. This way, you have an alternative outfit while you wait for items to dry.

Water

Water is a must-have on a camping trip. It’s a vital resource for hydration, cooking, and cleaning. A human can survive two weeks without food but only two days without water. Always carry an emergency water filter to remove contaminates from natural waterways such as rivers and lakes. If you don’t have a proper water filter, at the very minimum, boil drinking water to help prevent getting extremely sick.

Tent Location & Safety

Finding the perfect campsite is key to staying safe and dry. Ensure your tent is in a high and dry location and far enough from the campfire so it does not pose a risk. Find a spot using foliage or some other natural barrier to help protect you from mother nature’s wind or rainstorms.

Tarp

Having a tarp is just good sense when camping. For starters, it can be used as a backup shelter in case your tent is destroyed. But with a tent, place a tarp underneath it to prevent the tent’s floor from getting wet. Do not sleep directly on the tent’s floor either; use a cot or a pad. Or find fresh pine boughs to layer for cushion and warmth.

Emergency Plan

Always have a backup plan and another in case the first falls astray. Cell phones and batteries are a must but count on a lack of signal and dying batteries. For example, to start a fire, have a lighter, matches, and a flint starter to get one going. Using smoke is the most effective signal to call for help other than a cell phone. Adding pine boughs helps to create smoke billows after you’ve started the fire.

Fire

Keep heat for a fire on the ready by stacking a small pile of wood and gathering kindling like birch bark, pine cones, dry leaves, and small twigs. To get a fire started, carve out a small area of the ground to contain it. Place some kindling in the center, select small to medium-sized pieces of wood, and balance them against each other at an angle. Slowly add more wood until the fire is burning nicely and hot.  

Need supplies? Wolf Survival Gear has long-term food, outerwear, camping gear, and essential survival tools for the great outdoors. 

_____________________________

Wolf Survival Gear is a hub for your prepping and survival needs. We are your trusted resource for concerned families, avid hunters, or serious preppers. Make us your one-stop-shop and prepare now, before you’ll need it later.

Written by the digital marketing team at Creative Programs & Systems: https://www.cpsmi.com/